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Revised Standardized Guidelines and Procedures for the Implementation of CPE/CPD System...

STANDARDIZED GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION (CPE) PROGRAMS FOR...

STANDARDIZED GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION (CPE) PROGRAMS FOR...

Republic of the Philippines

Professional Regulation Commission

Manila

RESOLUTION NO. 2008-466

Series of 2008

REPEALING RESOLUTION 2004-179, SERIES OF 2004, THE “STANDARDIZED GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONTINIUNG PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION/DEVELOPMENT (CPE/ CPD) SYSTEM FOR ALL PROFESSIONS” AND IMPLEMENTATION OF REVISED STANDARDIZED GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION FO THE CPE/ CPD SYSTEM FOR ALL REGISTERED AND LICENSED PROFESSIONALS

WHEREAS, Section 14, Article XII of the 1987 Philippine Constitution partly provides that “the sustained development of a reservoir of national talents x x x professionals x x x shall be promoted by the State;”

WHEREAS, the Professional Regulation Commission (the “Commission”), under Section 7 (a), (n), and (y) of Republic Act (RA) No. 8981 otherwise known as the “PRC Modernization Act of 2000, “ has these specific powers:

“(a) To administer, implement and enforce the regulatory policies of the national government with respect to the regulation and licensing of the various professions and occupations under its jurisdiction including the enhancement and maintenance of professional and occupational standards and ethics and the enforcement of the rules and regulations relative thereto;”

“(n) To adopt and promulgate such rules and regulations as may be necessary to effectively implement policies with respect to the regulation and practice of the professions;”

“(y) To perform such other functions and duties as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act, the various professional regulatory laws, decrees, executive orders and other administrative issuances;”

WHEREAS, Section 9 (b) of R.A. No. 8981 provides that one of the Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of the Various Professional Regulatory Boards (PRBs) is “[T]o monitor the conditions affecting the practice of the profession or occupation under their respective jurisdictions and whenever necessary, adopt such measures as may be deemed proper for the enhancement of the profession or occupation and/or the maintenance of high professional, ethical and technical standards, x x x;”

WHEREAS, the formulation of the policy on CPE is in consonance with the objective to enhance and maintain high professional and occupational, ethical and technical standards in the practice of the professions;

WHEREAS, the President of the Republic of the Philippines issued on June 23, 2003, Executive Order (E.O.) No. 220, “[Directing the Adoption of the Code of Good Governance for the Professions in the Philippines”;

WHERERAS, the said Code was adopted by the Commission and the forty-four (44) PRBs, embodying principles of professional conduct, specifically, integrity and objectivity, professional competence, and global competitiveness;

WHEREAS, all the forty-three (43) PRBs and the forty-three (43) accredited professional organizations (APOs) are in favor of implementing a CPE in the practice of their respective professions;

WHEREAS, the Commission , as the instrument of the Filipino people in securing for the nation a reliable, trustworthy and progressive system of developing professionals whose competencies are globally competitive, has decided to prescribe guidelines and procedures to carry out the CPE for the registered and licensed professionals;

WHEREFORE, the Commission hereby RESOLVED, as it now RESOLVES, to prescribe, issue and promulgate the Revised Standardized Guidelines and Procedures for the Implementation of the Continuing Professional Education/Development (CPE/ CPD) system for All Registered and Licensed Professionals, which is made an integral part hereof as Annex “A”.

This Resolution shall take effect after fifteen days following its complete and full publication, in the Official Gazette or any newspaper of general circulation.

Done in the City of Manila, this 1st day of August , 2008.

LEONOR TRIPON-ROSERO

Secretary

RUTH RA√ĎA-PADILLA

Commissioner

NILO L. ROSAS

Commissioner

ANNEX “A”


REVISED STANDARDIZED GUIDELINES AND PROCEDURES FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTINUING PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION / DEVELOPMENT (CPE/CPD) SYSTEM FOR ALL REGISTERED AND LICENSED PROFESSIONALS

ARTICLE I

CPE DEFINITION, OBJECTIVES, NATURE, AND RATIONALE

Section 1. Definition. – Continuing Professional Education (CPE) refers to the inculcation, assimilation and acquisition of knowledge, skills, proficiency and ethical and moral values, after the initial registration of a professional that raise and enhance the professional’s technical skills and competence.

Section 2. Objectives. – The CPE programs shall have these objectives: (1) To provide and ensure the continuous education of a registered professional with the latest trends in the profession brought about by modernization and scientific and technological advancement; (2) To raise and maintain the professional’s capability for delivering professional services; (3) To attain and maintain the highest standards and quality in the practice of his/her profession; (4) To comply with the professional’s continuing ethical requirements; (5) To make the professional globally competitive; and (6) To promote the general welfare of the public.

Section 3. Nature. – The CPE programs consist of properly planned and structured activities, the implementation of which requires the participation of a determinant group of professionals to meet the requirements of maintaining and improving the occupational standards and ethics of the professionals.

Section 4. Rationale. Compliance with the CPE program is deemed a moral obligation of each professional and within the context of the concerned profession’s code of ethics and is considered a necessary, effective and credible means of ensuring competence, integrity and global competitiveness of professional in order to allow him/her to continue the practice of his/her profession.

ARTICLE II

THE CPE COUNCILS: CREATION, COMPOSITION, TERMS OF OFFICE, FUNCTIONS AND MEETINGS

Section 5. Creation. – Each of the concerned Professional Regulatory Board (PRBs), upon approval by the PRC (the “Commission”), shall create a Council within thirty (30) days from the effectivity of this resolution. This shall be known as the CPE Council (the “CPEC” or the “Council”) which shall assist its corresponding PRB in implementing its CPE programs.

Section 6. Composition. – Each CPE Council shall be composed of a chairperson and two (2) members. The chairperson of each CPE Council shall be chosen from among the members of the PRB by the members themselves. The first member shall be the president or, in his absence or incapacity, any officer chosen by the Board of Directors of the Accredited Professional Organization (APO). The second member shall be the president or, in his absence or incapacity, any officer of the organization of deans or department heads of schools, colleges or universities offering the course requiring licensure examination. In the absence of such organization, the second member shall be chosen and appointed by the PRC from at least three (3) recommendees of the PRB concerned. Said recommendees shall be well-known academicians.

All members of the Council shall be appointed by the Commission and shall take their oath of office before any or all member/s of the Commission.

Section 7. Terms of Office. – The term of office of the chairperson of each Council shall be co-terminus with his/her incumbency in the PRC or determined by his/her capacity to fully discharge such functions. Should a change be required by the PRB before the end of the Council Chairperson’s incumbency, the necessary replacement shall be nominated/named by the simple majority of the PRB and thereafter appointed by the Commission in accordance with due process. The first member shall have a term of office co-terminus with his/her incumbency as officer of the APO; the second member shall have a term of office co-terminus with his/her incumbency as officer of the organization of deans or heads of departments. In the case of the academician chosen and appointed by the Commission, his/her term of office shall be for two (2) years with one reappointment. Except in the case of the academician-member, upon the expiration of their respective terms of office in the PRB, APO or organization of deans or heads of departments, the chairperson, first member and second member shall continue to function as such in the Council until the appointment or election of their respective successors in the PRB, APO or organization.

Section 8. Exercise of Powers and Functions. – Each Council shall, upon a majority vote, exercise powers and functions which shall include but shall not be limited to the following:

1. Accept, evaluate and approve applications for accreditation of CPE providers.

2. Accept, evaluate and approve applications for accreditation of CPE programs, activities or sources as to their relevance to the profession and determine the number of CPE credit units (CUs) to be earned on the basis of the contents of the program, activity or source submitted by the CPE providers.

3. Accept, evaluate and approve applications for exemptions from CPE requirements.

4. Monitor the implementation by the CPE providers of their programs, activities or sources.

5. Assess periodically and upgrade criteria for accreditation of CPE providers and CPE programs, activities or sources.

6. Perform such other related functions that may be incidental to the implementation of the CPE programs or policies.

Section 9. Functions of the Council Chairperson. – Each Council Chairperson shall have the following functions:

1. To preside over the meetings of the Council.

2. To direct or supervise the activities of the Council.

3. To submit minutes of regular and special meetings within thirty (30) days from date of said meetings.

4. To submit Council annual reports before the end of February of the succeeding year.

5. To issue the certificate of accreditation (the “CoA”) to CPE providers found by the Council to be qualified in accordance with these Guidelines as well as certificate of accreditation of program/s (the “CoAP”), activities and sources.

Section 10. Secretariat. – The Chairperson of the Commission shall designate or appoint an official of the Commission with the rank not lower than Division Chief who shall act as the Secretary of all CPE Councils. The designated official may participate in the deliberations of the CPE Councils but shall not vote. His/her duties and functions shall be as follows:

1. To see to it that the sessions, meetings or proceedings of the Councils are recorded;

2. To prepare the minutes of all the meetings and proceedings of the Councils;

3. To receive applications for accreditation of CPE providers, programs, activities or sources;

4. To submit to the Councils applications for accreditation of aspiring CPE providers and CPE programs, activities or sources;

5. To release Certificates of Accreditation to CPE providers and programs, activities or sources;

6. To assist the Councils by providing relevant statistical data on the renewal of professional licenses and other related matters.

The Secretary shall exercise general supervision and control over each of the Council Secretaries, the staff of which shall be selected by the Chairperson of the Commission from among the existing personnel of the Commission. Each of the Council Secretaries shall have, among others, the following functions:

1. To release CPE Certifications of credit units (the “CUs”) earned to the registered and licensed professionals concerned;

2. To keep all records, papers and other documents relative to the evaluation, approval and accreditation of CPE programs, activities or sources;

3. To maintain records of accredited CPE providers, ongoing, continuing or completed CPE programs, activities or sources, the list of participants and other relevant data.

Section 11. Meetings. – The Councils shall hold regular meetings once a month on dates to be fixed by said Councils. Special meetings may be called by a Chairperson or upon written request of at least a member of a CPE Council.

Section 12. Budgetary Requirements. – Direct costs and other expenses of all the Councils may be provided for in the annual Commission Budget.

Section 13. Involvement of the Accredited Professional Organization (APO). – The Council, if the need arises, and upon approval of the Commission, may delegate to the APO the processing of the application, keeping of all records of CPE providers and their respective programs and credit units (CUs) earned by each registered and licensed professional who avail of the CPE programs and related functions. For this purpose, the APO may create a counterpart CPE Council known as APO CPE Council (the “APO-CPEC”) and may ask for reimbursement of reasonable processing and recordkeeping fees directly from the applicants apart from the accreditation fee that such applicants pay directly to the Commission. The APO CPEC shall keep separate books of accounts of its expenses and amounts collected from applicants and make a monthly report thereof to the Commission through the PRB. Any excess collection shall be used exclusively as working capital of the APO for the CPE activities.

ARTICLE III

CRITERIA FOR ACCREDITATION OF PROVIDERS, PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES OR SOURCES; EQUIVALENT CREDIT UNITS; CREDIT REQUIREMENTS; EXEMPTIONS AND OTHER MATTERS

Section 14. Criteria for Accreditation. – In order to merit accreditation, the following criteria shall be complied with:

A. For CPE Provider

1. Must be a duly registered organization, firm, institution or agency, or a registered and licensed professional of good standing in the APO concerned, and who has never been convicted of a crime;

2. Shall have an established mechanism for measuring the quality of the program being offered or administered;

3. Must have adequate, modern and updated instructional materials to carry out the CPE programs and activities;

4. Shall have a pool of regular instructors, lecturers and resource speakers with good moral character and technical competence and must be holders of current/valid professional registrations and licenses, if they are professionals regulated by the Commission.

B. For CPE programs, activities or sources

1. The scope shall be beyond the basic preparation for admission to the practice of the profession. The contents shall be relevant/related, but not limited, to the practice of the profession.

2. The programs, activities or sources shall enhance the competence of the registered and licensed professional by upgrading and updating knowledge and skills for the practice of the profession as brought about by modernization and scientific and technical advancements in the profession.

Section 15. Programs, Activities and Sources for Accreditation and Equivalent Credit Units. – Any provider may submit to the CPE Council programs, activities or sources to be approved and accredited for credit units (CUs) units. No CPE provider shall be allowed to conduct CPE programs, activities or sources without prior approval and accreditation from the Council.

As used in these guidelines, the following terms shall mean:

1. Seminars shall refer to the gathering of registered and licensed professionals which shall include, among others, workshops, technical lectures or subject matter meetings, non-degree training courses and scientific meetings.

2. Conventions shall refer to a gathering of registered and licensed professionals which shall include, among others, conferences, symposia or assemblies for round table discussions.

3. Doctoral Degree shall refer to a post graduate degree from a recognized school, college or university.

4. Masteral Degree shall refer to a graduate degree from a recognized school, college or university.

5. Fellowship shall refer to the completion of a post-doctoral training program in a specific field pre-approved by a duly recognized institution, scientific faculty meeting and the like.

6. Residency/Externship shall refer to apprenticeship training at the graduate level which is beyond the basic preparation for the regulated and licensed health professionals. This should be conducted by duly-accredited hospitals and medical centers and the like.

7. Authorship shall refer to the ownership of intellectual property which includes technical or professional books, instructional materials and the like. Credit units (CUs) earned must be claimed within one (1) year from the date of publication.

8. Self-Directed Learning Package shall refer to learning which uses course manuals or accredited learning modules. Accredited learning modules include self-instructional materials or programs which may be in the form of printed manual, audio and video cassette tapes, films, computer-assisted learning (CAL), study kits, learning aids and modules or the use of the information highway. These should include among others, clearly defined objectives, adequate content and an evaluation component for each module.

9. Post Graduate/In-Service Training shall mean training or specialization at the post graduate level for a minimum period of one (1) week.

10. Resource Speaker shall refer to a professional who acts as discussion leader or lecturer, in a convention or seminar or similar gathering.

11. Peer Reviewer shall refer to a professional who acts as an evaluator of a research paper, conference paper or journal article before it is presented or published.

12. CPE Provider shall refer to a natural person or a juridical entity which includes among others, accredited or non-accredited professional organization, firm, partnership, corporation or institution which offers, organizes or arranges CPE programs, activities or sources for implementation and administration.

13. CPE Programs, Activities or Sources shall refer to the regime of CPE which enhance the competence of the professional by upgrading and updating knowledge and skills for the profession as brought about by modernization and scientific and technical advancements in the profession. The scope shall be beyond the basic preparation for admission to the practice of the regulated profession. The content shall be related but not limited to the practice of the profession.

The following is the Matrix for CPE programs, activities or sources with their corresponding credit units and supporting documents required. Credit Unit (CU) allocation for other CPE activities may be decided upon by the concerned Council.

MATRIX FOR CPE PROGRAMS, ACTIVITIES OR SOURCES

PROGRAMS

CREDIT UNITS

SUPPORTING DOCUMENT

1. SEMINARS/CONVENTION

1.1 PARTICIPANT

1 CU PER HOUR

CERTIFICATE OF ATTENDANCE WITH

NUMBER OF HOURS,

SEMINAR PROGRAM,

CERTIFIED LIST OF PARTICIPANTS

1.2 RESOURCE SPEAKER

5 CU PER HOUR

PHOTOCOPY OF PLAQUE,

CERTIFICATION AND COPY OF PAPER,

PROGRAM INVITATION

1.3 PANELIST/REACTOR

3 CU PER HOUR

CERTIFICATION FROM SPONSORING

ORGANIZATION AND COPY OF PROGRAM

1.4 FACILITATOR / MODERATOR

2 CU PER HOUR

CERTIFICATION FROM SPONSORING ORGANIZATION AND COPY OF PROGRAM

2. ACADEMIC PREPARATION

(Residential and Distance Mode)

2.1 MASTER’S DEGREE

1 CU PER ACADEMIC UNIT

30 CU ADDITIONAL UPONM COMPLETION OF DEGREE

UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATION

DIPLOMA AND TRANSCRIPT OF RECORDS

2.2 DOCTORAL DEGREE

2 CU PER ACADEMIC UNIT

45 CU ADDITIONAL UPON COMPLETION OF DEGREE

UNIVERSITY CERTIFICATION

DIPLOMA AND TRANSRIPT OF RECORDS

2.3 RESIDENCY/EXTERNSHIP

10 CU PER YEAR

HOSPITAL CERTIFICATION

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLETION

2.4 FELLOWSHIP

15 CU PER YEAR

CERTIFICATION FROM THE GRANTING INSTITUTION, CERTIFICATE OF FELLOWSHIP

3. SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING PACKAGE

3.1 MODULE

10 CU PER COMPLETE SET OF MODULE

COPY OF DULY-ACCOMPLISHED MODULE AND EVALUATION

3.2 TECHNICAL PAPER/

PROFESSIONAL

JOURNAL ARTICLE

1 CU/PROFESSIONAL/

TECHNICAL ARTICLE

COPY OF DULY-ACCOMPLISHED ARTICLE AND EVALUATION

4. AUTHORSHIP

4.1 RESEARCH/INNOVATIVE

PROGRAMS/CREATIVE

PROJECTS

10 CREDIT UNITS

DULY CERTIFIFED/PUBLISHED TECHNICAL REPORT/PAPER

4.2 BOOK/MONOGRAPH

SINGLE AUTHOR

2 AUTHORS

3 OR MORE

(25-50 Pp) (51-100 Pp) (100 OR

MORE Pp.)

20 CU 30 CU 40 CU

10 CU 20 CU 30 CU

5 CU 10 CU 20 CU

PUBLISHED BOOK WITH PROOF OF COPYRIGHT

4.3 EDITOR

½ OF THE CU OF AUTHORSHIP CATEGORY

PUBLISHED BOOK WITH PROOF OF AUTHORSHIP

4.4 ARTICLE

SINGLE AUTHOR

2 AUTHORS

3 OR MORE

(1-3 Pp) (4-6 Pp) (7 OR MORE Pp)

4 CU 6 CU 8 CU

3 CU 4 CU 6 CU

2 CU 3 CU 4 CU

PROOF OF PUBLICATION OF ARTICLE

4.5 PROFESSIONAL JOURNAL

EDITOR

5 CU PER ISSUE

COPY OF PUBLISHED JOURNAL

4.6 PEER REVIEWER

2 CU / ARTICLE

DULY CERTIFIED COPY OF PUBLISHED ARTICLE/BOOK

5. INVENTIONS

10-30 CREDIT UNITS PER INVENTION

CERTIFIED COPY OF PATENT CERTIFICATE

6. POSTGRADUATE /

IN-SERVICE TRAINING

0.25 CU PER HOUR

(MAXIMUM OF 40 CU/TRAINING)

CERTIFICATE OF TRAINING AND

TRAINING DESCRIPTION

7. STUDY / OBSERVATION

2 CU / DAY (MAXIMUM OF 30 CU / TOUR)

CERTIFICATION FROM SPONSORING INSTITUTION

8. PROFESSORIAL CHAIR

10 CU / CHAIR / YEAR

CERTIFICATION OF GRANT OR

APPOINTMENT PAPER

SUCH OTHER ACTIVITIES/

PROGRAMS/SOURCES TO BE

RECOMMENDED BY THE

COUNCIL AND APPROVED BY THE COMMISSION







Section 16. CPE Credit Units. – The total CPE credit units (CUs) for registered and licensed professionals with baccalaureate degree shall be sixty (60) credit units for three (3) years. Any excess credit units earned shall not be carried over to the next three-year period except credit units earned for doctoral and masteral degrees or for other special training.

The total CPE credit units (CUs) for registered and licensed professionals without baccalaureate degrees shall be thirty (30) credit units for three (3) years. Any excess shall not be carried to the next three-year period.

One credit hour of CPE program, activity or source shall be equivalent to one (1) credit unit.

Programs and activities conducted by providers which were not pre-accredited may be given credit upon submission of documents relevant to the programs to the APO CPEC and upon approval of the Council.

Section 17. Procedures. – Each Council shall observe the following procedures for the accreditation of CPE providers and CPE programs, activities, or sources:

A. Procedure for Accreditation of CPE provider:

I. In case of natural persons:

1. Any person seeking to offer an organized or arranged program, activity or source shall accomplish and submit to the appropriate Council an application form.

2. An application shall include, but shall not limit to the following information:

a. Full name, address and telephone number of the applicant-provider.

b. Relevant educational background.

c. Profession, principal area of professional work and number of years in the legal practice of the regulated profession.

d. PRC License Number and date of expiration.

e. Current employment.

3. Applicant-provider shall submit a valid NBI clearance.

II. In case of juridical entity:

1. Any agency, organization, institution, association or similar juridical entity seeking to offer an organized program, activity or source shall accomplish and submit to the appropriate Council an application form.

2. An application shall include, but shall not be limited to, the following information and documents:

a. Full name, address and telephone/fax number/s and e-mail address.

b. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) or Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) original registration papers.

c. List of officers with their PRC License Numbers and expiry date if officer is a member of a regulated profession.

d. Plans for CPE programs or activities for the year applied.

e. Proof of past CPE activities or programs conducted / arranged (immediate past year) for applicants renewing accreditation (not required for first time applicants).

III. All applicants shall submit to the CPE / CPD Council concerned the following:

1. Mechanism for measuring the quality of the program, activity or source being offered.

2. Criteria for selecting and evaluating speakers, resource persons or lecturers.

IV. Issuance by the Council of Certificate of Accreditation (CoA) as CPE provider in the case of natural persons and juridical entities and their programs, activities and sources by the Commission Proper. Accreditation shall be for a period of three (3) years, renewable every three (3) years.

B. Procedures for Accreditation of a CPE Program, Activity or Source

1. A CPE provider seeking accreditation of an organized or arranged CPE program, activity or source shall submit said program, activity or source (in triplicate) to the Council concerned for its evaluation and approval. The program, activity, or source shall cover a period not to exceed three (3) years.

2. The application for accreditation of a CPE Program, activity or source shall include the following information and documents:

a. Title/s of program/s, activity/ies or source/s.

b. Name of CPE provider, address, phone and fax numbers.

c. Date and venue of the Administration of the program.

d. Objectives.

e. Targeted audience or participants.

f. Contents and number of hours.

g. Resource speakers, lecturers, discussion leaders, panelists, reactors, moderators, and facilitators,

including their qualifications and current PRC license if they are members of the regulated profession.

h. Actual program and schedule.

i. Submission of the proposed budget and seminar or convention fee to be collected shall be reviewed by the Council.

j. Seminar or convention fee to be collected.

k. Evaluation to be used which could either be any of the following modes or systems:

i. evaluation of seminar by participant.

ii. evaluation of participants by CPE providers; tests.

iii. other methods of evaluation

3. If the Council concerned finds the CPE program, activity or source to be relevant to the profession, cost effective to the participants and to be in accordance with these guidelines, said Council shall issue a certificate of accreditation within thirty (30) days from receipt of the application.

Section 18. Post-Accreditation Requirements. – Upon the completion of an accredited CPE program, activity or source, the CPE provider shall submit a report to the Council concerned within fifteen (15) days from the last day of the offering. The report shall include, but shall not be limited to the following information:

1. Name of CPE provider.

2. Name or description of CPE program, activity or source.

3. Accreditation number and date of issuance of accreditation.

4. Certified list of participants indicating names and PRC professional license/identification (ID) cards and expiry dates, resource speakers, lecturers, discussion leaders, panelists, moderators or facilitators who took part or participated in the CPE program, activity or source.

5. Date and time of start and completion of the holding of the CPE program, activity or source.

6. Venue/Location of the holding of the program.

7. Summary of evaluation results of participants.

8. Name of Secretariat representative who monitored the CPE program or activity.

Section 19. Sanctions.

A. Accredited CPE Provider – Accreditation shall be withdrawn from the CPE Provider who:

1. Is found not complying with the prescribed rules and regulations for CPE, or

2. Has committed substantial deviation from the approved program, or

3. Has submitted false reports, or

4. Has committed such other acts that the Council finds to be in violation of the intent of the program.

B. Commission EmployeesAny employee of the PRC who causes, abets or helps in the renewal of the ID card / license of a registered professional without complying with CPE requirements shall be considered to have violated office and/or civil service rules and regulations and shall be proceeded against administratively, and, if found guilty, shall be meted out the penalties provided for by the said laws and rules and regulations.

Nothing follows.

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